Subscribe below to receive notification of the latest update.

Subscription options



ATS Newsletters

by author


The Boiardo 15th c Poem
Tarot history in brief

quotations from various people

Functions of Readings
What is Tarot?


Med. on XVIIII

Emily E. Auger

Tarot and Other Meditation Decks

L. Atkinson

Orphalese Software review

S. Arwen

Memory & Instinct

Kathy Berkowitz

Waite's Mystical Tradition (Pt 1)
Waite's Mystical Tradition (Pt 2)
Waite's Mystical Tradition (Pt 3)
Waite's Mystical Tradition (Pt 4)

Nina L. Braden

Tarot in Literature

David Brice

Birth of Tarot

Colin Browne

Square & Compasses Tarot

Lee A. Bursten

Journeys in Tarot Creation
Vachetta review


Review: The Lo Scarabeo Story

Ross G. Caldwell

Tarot History

Bonnie Cehovet

Tarology - Poetics of Tarot
Review: Secret of Tarot
The Mystereum Tarot

N. Chishty-Mujahid

Concerning Ghisi’s Laberinto

Craig Conley

A House of Tarot Cards

A.B. Crowther

Rachel Pollack interview

Jean-Michel David

Tarot's expression of the numinous
Yarker, Tarot & Arcane Schools
Waite-Smith Sun card
The Fool as Wandering Jew
Tarot as Christian Art
Education through Tarot
Tarot: the vatical & the sacral
Fortuna, Ass & Monkey
Steiner and Tarot
1701 Dodal restored!
Enc. Tarot vol I-IV: review
Christ, World & Sin
Caveat Emptor:
       Visual Tarot

Tarot & AlefBeit
Review: Jean Payen Tarot
Tarot and Freemasonry
I-Ching and Pip Cards
Whither directing your course?
Tarot & the Tree of Life
Ovid, Egypt and Tarot
When the Devil isn't the Devil
Four elements and the suits
Court Cards & MBTI
Certification & Codes
Jean Dodal Marseille
Conference FAQs
Golden Dawn
Kabalah & Tarot
Golden Tarot review
Annual spread
Iraqi Museum
Two Brief TdM reviews
Meditations on the Tarot

Enrique Enriquez

The Joy of Wordplay
J-C. Flornoy interview
Embodied Tarot
Indirect Suggestions
Whispering to the Eye

Mark Filipas

History of Egyptian Decks
Lexicon Theory

Jean-Claude Flornoy

in memorium
from Oral Tradition

Roxanne Flornoy

Children and Tarot
from Oral Tradition

Mary Greer

Killing the Thoth Deck
On the Tarot of the Four Worlds
Egypt, Tarot and Mystery School Initiations

William Haigwood

The Sixties: Counterculture Tarot

Alissa Hall

Parlour Tricks

Kris Hadar

The Tarot

Claas Hoffmann

Crowley-Harris 'Thoth' deck

Michael J. Hurst

Tarot Symbolism review

K. Frank Jensen

Century with the Waite-Smith

Shane Kendal

A Poetry of Tarot

Ken J. Killeen

The Metaphysical Bible

Barbara Klaser

Language of Tarot

E. Koretaka

Cardinal Virtues

Dovid Krafchow

Kabbalistic Tarot

Lisa Larson

Perceptions of Spirituality

Suzan E. Lemont

Therapeutic Tarot Work

Eric K. Lerner

Diloggun and Tarot

N. Levine

Tarot of Prague review

C. Liknaitzky

Journey in Ceramics

Joep van Loon

Tarot Wheel

Karen Mahony


S.J. Mangan

Fool, Alef & Orion

Robert Mealing

Petrarch’s Triumphs
Jean Noblet Tarot
Hunting the "true" Marseille Tarot
Cary Sheet

Fern Mercier

Playing the Fool

C. de Mellet

Inquiries into Tarot

Sophie Nusslé

Fantastic Menagerie

Robert V. O'Neill

Tarot Symbolism
Tower Iconology

Michael Owen

Xultun Tarot

Dan Pelletier

Magic Manga Tarot
the Blank Spot

Robert M. Place

The Fool's Journey

Debra Rosenthal

Looking at the Jacques Vieville

Mjr Tom Schick

Tarot Lovers Calendar

Inna Semetsky

Counseling Reading for Spouses
Learning the language of images
Re-Symbolization of Self
Tarot (dis)contents

Diana Sobolewska

'Bateleur's tale'

Russell Sturgess

Jesus's New Testament

N. Swift

Sufism & Tarot

Arthur E. Waite

Symbols of Tarot

The Mat as the Fol (or Fou; Fool)


It’s an interesting story: what does ‘mat’ actually mean or to what does it refer? A sensing-in-the-dark type of answer I have previously provided has included its plausible reference to chess and its arabic provenance as ‘death’ or ‘kill’ (as in ‘check-mate’ – from ‘shah mat’, meaning ‘king dead’). But to be honest, I have never felt happy with this (or any other) explanation, even if the derivative etymology ultimately points to this as a precursor source.

I also realise that the Italian decks have ‘matto’, and that this also has entered common usage. Part of the historical problem is that it appears, from what I have been able to ascertain, that the usage of ‘matto’ as ‘fool’ or ‘foolish’ only entered Italian after its existing appearance on cards that antidate such use.

Surely the word itself would more simply have been understood as one of the common variants of ‘Fol’.

Of disappearing common words

There have certainly been other words that make their appearance on some tarot decks that have been half forgotten – at least by those amongst us who, though perhaps highly familiar with tarot, lack what mediaeval scholars of French, Italian, German, and Latin (amongst others) would take for granted. An example that jumps to mind is ‘pances’ as it appears on the Dodal tarot (I have previously included reference to it, and its meaning, in both ‘A closer look at one of the Marseille decks: the Jean Dodal c. 1701, Lyon‘ and ‘Tarot’s expression of the numinous‘).

In that instance, ‘La Pances’ refers to the womb or ‘belly’ or ‘pouch’. I recall a radio interview on which I was invited to speak of tarot (in French), and as I briefly gave the Dodal as an example of differences in titles (and proceeded to explain the meaning of ‘pances’), the interviewer, who had obtained her Master’s in mediaeval French, thought it rather obvious.

I have long suspected that ‘Mat’ has a similar story…

Of Lumiere (‘Gothic’) Cathedrals

In my Reading the Marseille Tarot (page 534), I mention that petroglyph images found on the cathedrals of both Paris and Amiens have pairings of virtues and vices, in the case in point of, respectively, courage and cowardice. Cowardice is wonderfully depicted in a manner that sees the person deprived of courage as dropping his sword and running away from a rabbit whose emergence from the bushes to his side has frightened the ‘living daylights out of him’ (if non-native English speakers pardon the expression). And here, of course, the similarity to the Fou’s depiction has clear and obvious similarities.

In the book, I also there raise the question whether it could therefore be that our tarot Fol is a depiction derived from representations of this very image, with the rabbit progressively losing its clarity and slowly transforming to a rather obscure representation of an animal that eventually becomes re-clarified as a dog in image-interpretation and thus later also in re-created depiction. Certainly even Noblet, had he paid attention, would have been aware of the Paris cathedral petroglyph.

Even the Italian word ‘matto’, incidentally, may have connections with an earlier etymology that connects to courageous aggression – and thus, through common parlance, of its own inversion. There, its connection with mediaeval Spanish and Catalan may appear more obvious, and its influence on decks designed not far from the Pyrenees region perhaps reflect a lingering of Oc. I would certainly be pleased for those who have greater expertise in linguistic analysis and derivatives to look into this further.

What has led me to re-consider the word ‘Mat’ own derivative, however, is something that may be all too common to German speakers, and that would possibly also explain its usage in decks designed nearer the Rhine.

Schubert’s Winterreise

By a wonderful chance, earlier this year (if I recall, in May), a performance of Schubert’s Winterreise was wonderfully rendered by tenor Nicholas Wijnberg, accompanied by a pianist friend Marcus Cox. It was a piece I had never previously paid much attention – and to be honest, I do not recall if I had even previously heard it.

From its opening, the story – or rather, the journey, brought to mind those that only a fool would dare to make. Its 22nd piece, however, directly brought this to greater focus for two especial reasons: on the one hand there is that line that translated reads:

If there’s no God on earth, then we ourselves are gods!

and the very title of the piece is Mut! (i.e., ‘Courage’).

And so we come full circle… could it indeed be that this little title on the card refers and hints back to an earlier understanding of the fool as the fool’s ‘courage’ and its opposite vice? For myself at any rate, it is by far the more obvious and clear explanation as to the otherwise strangeness of its alternate title.

Arthur Waite’s Secret Mystical Tradition and the Waite-Smith Tarot

Shareby Kathy Berkowitz   Journey of the Soul (Continued) This is part III of a series of essays that explores Bonaventure’s mystical tradition and its influence on the 1910 Waite-Smith Tarot. Saint Bonaventure’s (1217-1274) The Soul’s Journey to God follows the contemplative method of Pseudo-Dionysius (5th Century). Both Bonaventure and Pseudo-Dionysius were on the recommended […]

Counseling with Tarot: Reading for Spouses

Shareby Inna Semetsky – & This paper is an excerpt (with some modifications and abbreviations) from my book Re-Symbolization of the Self: Human Development and Tarot Hermeneutic. It contains two real-life readings for spouses, Pam and Ross (not their real names). The readings were conducted in the form of 50 minutes counseling […]

Arthur Waite’s Secret Mystical Tradition and the Waite-Smith Tarot

Shareby Kathy Berkowitz   Journey of the Soul (Continued) This is part II of a series of essays where I argue that Arthur Waite’s 1910 Tarot’s hidden tradition is Bonaventure’s (1217-1274) Soul’s Journey into God, which follows the contemplative method of Pseudo Dionysius the Areopagite (5th Century). Both Bonaventure’s and Dionysius’s books are prominent in […]

Tarot’s expression of the numinous

ShareTarot finds its expression in various settings: divinatory; meditative; and as artistic expression. Each of these three areas may have a numinous quality in either its development or its interpretation. Four examples are presented reflecting four ways in which the numinous is touched: in meditative practice using a similar form to the traditional Christian Lectio […]

John Yarker, Tarot, and the Arcane Schools

Shareby Jean-Michel David John Yarker is perhaps best remembered for his highly active involvement in Freemasonry in especially the UK around the turn of the 20th Century. He was not only instrumental in keeping alive a number of various Orders that had either already ceased active existence, or were on the brink of oblivion. He […]

The Metaphysical Bible

ShareA Handbook for personal development by Ken J. Killeen [ed. note: Ken presented the following at the ATS Conference in Melbourne, exemplifying fourfold interpretation with both the Bible and Tarot – jmd] [I – i.e., Ken – would like to acknowledge the late Reverend Mario Schoenmaker and my friend and mentor Stephen Cugley] The Bible […]

Arthur Waite’s Secret Mystical Tradition and the Waite-Smith Tarot

Shareby Kathy Berkowitz   Introduction: Arthur E. Waite’s 1910 Tarot deck is one of the most popular Tarots in the contemporary world. Yet despite Waite’s deck having captured the hearts and minds of two generations of Tarotists, Waite himself has not shared in this popularity. The general consensus is that Waite owes his Tarot’s success […]

Waite-Smith Sun card ‘extra’ squiggly line

Shareby Jean-Michel David A number of years ago (in September 2006), I started a discussion thread on Aeclectic’s TarotForum with regards a peculiarity of the Sun card on the Waite-Smith deck. At that stage, the discussion did not go very far, yet it remains a detail that has yet to be explained.   images […]

The Joy of Wordplay

ShareEnrique Enriquez “There will be prolonged disagreement on the more or less figurative sense that Rimbaud (who was nourished, as we cannot insist too often, on occult reading) wished to have attributed to the words ‘alchemy of the word’, and it will be asked whether the whole secret of the passionate interest aroused successively, within […]